In plumbing systems, numerous types of pipe fittings are available for various purposes and functions. A pipe fitting is used in a plumbing system to connect numerous pipes of the same or various diameters, to regulate or measure flow, and to unite multiple pipes of the same or different sizes. They are made of various materials such as copper, iron, brass, PVC, and so on.
Pipe Reducer Fittings
Reducers are pipe fitting components that lower the flow size from bigger to smaller by reducing the size of the pipe. Typically, two types of reducers are available. The first is a concentric reducer, which is designed like a cone and gradually decreases around the pipe; nevertheless, in this situation, air collection is possible, which results in cavitation. The other kind is an eccentric reducer, which has one edge parallel to the connecting pipe and so prevents air collection.
The cross type
Cross fittings have four openings in four directions. When four pipes intersect at a spot, these are linked. Because they are positioned in the middle of four connecting sites, these fittings create extra stress on the pipe when the temperature varies. Cross fittings are commonly seen in fire sprinkler systems.
Union is a sort of fitting that works similarly to coupling. Whereas, the coupling cannot be withdrawn after it has been fixed; however, in this situation, the union may be deleted anytime necessary. Unions are made up of a nut, male and female terminated threads. As a result, this is also important for keeping the pipe’s function.
Olets are utilized when regular sizes of fittings are insufficient for our needs. When the intake pipe size is greater than the output pipe size in t-sections, Olets are employed. There are several varieties of olets available. Among the most important types of olets are
- Socket weld Olet
- Threaded olet
- Elbow olet
- Nipple olet
- Lateral olet
- Flange olet
Cap is a sort of pipe fitting with the same purpose as a plug, the main difference being that a plug has male threads and a cap has female threads that screw onto the male thread of the pipe. These are available in a variety of materials such as rubber, copper, steel, and plastic.
Pipe Elbow Fittings
Elbows are used to reverse the flow direction between two pipes. Elbows are often available in 22.5o, 45o, and 90o angles. Normal elbows are used when the pipes are the same diameter; otherwise, reducer elbows are required. Elbows are created from a variety of materials. These typically have female threads and may be repaired using butt or socket welding.
Pipe Fitting of the Tee Style
Tee type fittings are T-shaped plumbing system components. It has one input and two outlets, with the outlets placed at 90o to the main line connection (inlet). It may also combine the flow from two inlets to one output. They are also available in a variety of materials and sizes. If the three sides of a T-fitting are the same size, it is referred to as an Equal tee; otherwise, it is referred to as an Unequal tee.
To join pipes of the same diameter, a coupling is used. Couplings are also important if the pipe breaks or leaks. In general, two types of couplings are provided. Slip coupling and compression coupling are two types of coupling. Compression coupling is a typical coupling that connects two pipes and prevents leakage by arranging gaskets or rubber seals on both sides; otherwise, glue is used. Slip coupling is simpler to install and consists of two pipes put one into the other, with the inner pipe sliding up to a certain length. As a result, we may repair a large length of damaged pipe using a slip coupling.
If the pipes do not have special or plain ends, adaptors are used to thread them either male or female, depending on the situation. Adopters are commonly used with copper and PVC pipes. Male adapters have male threads, whereas female adapters have female threads. One end of the adapter is plain, and it is glued, welded, or soldered to the plain end of the pipe.
A plug is a plumbing component that is typically used to block pipe openings during inspections and repairs. Male threads are commonly seen in plugs.
Pipe Fitting Valves
Valves are plumbing system components that are used to halt or regulate the flow of fluid in its passage. Depending on the use, many types of valves are available.
The following are some of the most common types of valves and their applications.
- Gate valves, plug valves, and ball valves are exclusively used for isolation.
- Throttling is accomplished by the use of a globe valve.
- Check valves are used to prevent reverse flow (non-return)
- Butterfly valves are utilized for both isolation and throttling.
- Diaphragm valves are utilized for both isolation and throttling.
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